The Art of Enrolment – Topic

Here is what I see as the third key reason why enrolment is difficult.   It is the nature of some topic.

For some topics, its name is confusing to start with.   ‘Leadership’ (or ‘Leadership Development’) is one of these.    You pick any 2 people in the workplace and ask them what leadership is.   They probably have very different answer.     In addition, there is one understanding of the term ‘Leadership Development’ which particularly confuses the communication i.e.

Leadership Development = Any developmental intervention for those in the leadership position.

This could really mean anything, even how to ensure policy compliance in China.   See my earlier post on ‘Leadership Development’.

With such a diverse understanding on what the topic it is, no wonder we would have ‘wrong’ participants in workshops / interventions.

Jumping ahead a bit into the ‘So What’, perhaps we should do away the term ‘Leadership’ and ‘Leadership Development’ in describing intervention.   Specifically, we should avoid workshop names like ‘The Essence of Leadership’, ‘Advanced Leadership Skills’.   Instead, we can consider to be more specific in naming them and use terms like ‘Transition’, ‘Influencing’, ‘Feedback’, ‘Visioning’.   If we are mindful to keep the name short, we can add a 4-5 words 1 liner to describe.

(Yes, most organisations have course factsheets already in place. But in my experience, people tend to judge by names rather than the content of the factsheets)

 

The Art of Enrolment

‘Magic happens before and after’ – What a great quote I learnt from the others.   The same applies to the business of developmental work. For example, whether a learning workshop succeeds or not is at least 50% ‘determined already’ before it really starts.   And one of the key pre-workshop work is to get the right participants into the workshop.

I was once in a workshop in Hong Kong with quite a few challenging participants.   They were either:

  • Not knowing why they were put into this particular program (one asked me whether he has done something wrong and thus got sent to this program!!)
  • Not having time for the workshop.   Some were actively working on deals
  • Not seeing the need to develop their leadership at all
  • Not even supported by their boss to spend time in the program

The workshop turned out to be very challenging as we had quite a few of the above and their dysfunctional behaviours influenced others a lot e.g. late-coming, working on mobile devices during sessions.   Having said, there were often 1 or 2 of these ‘prisoners’, ‘tourists’ or even ‘terrorists’ in the workshops I experienced.

Well, that is why I always prefer to work on Just-in-Time learning with intact teams.   See previous posts like this.   Since the intervention itself is real work, the participants will naturally have the will and time for it.   Unfortunately, we got to work on Just-in-Case learning as well and the risk of having ‘wrong’ participants is there.

Let me first reflect on why ‘wrong’ participants will end up in a learning program.   Organisationally, I think the root causes are size, time and topic nature.   First, when there are too many people in an organisation, there will be very different views on what a talent should develop on.     The talent development team in the headquarter believes an individual (let’s say John) should develop on networking skills but John and his boss see hard skills like credit analysis to be more important.   The situation becomes more complex when there are more parties in the picture e.g. local HR, business HR, local talent development, business head.

Ideally, such difference in view can be reconciled if there is time.   Specifically, John comes up his own individual development plan.   He discusses and agrees with his boss.   They then further discuss and agree with their HR partner.   And that HR partner ideally should have liaised with the other various HR specialists and business heads, and thus understands perfectly well the top down agenda on talent development i.e. what competency is needed for the organisation or a particular business.   John can then adjust his individual development plan which by then takes care of his own aspiration, the immediate business and the overall organisational need.   Yet, how often does an organizations have time for such alignment work?    Especially for the listed ones which need to respond to short-term-ism!

Let me elaborate on the third factor – topic nature – in the next post.

Further thought on Co-designing with client

 I wrote about the importance in designing with a representative from the sponsor (here), yet maintaining adequate direct contact with the sponsor (here).   My thought on co-designing is sharpened by my recent experience in running a team development workshop in Shenyang China. The representative is preferably one of the participants.   Not (just) the sponsor’s business planning manager or executive assistant or HR / Training Department coordinator, but someone on the receiving end of the intervention.   First, the latter is equally (if not more informed) of what design would be more appropriate.   Second, working with a participant will simply put a better linkage between design thought and evaluation.     Lastly, if there is learning element in the workshop, the co-designer can start his / her learning earlier during the design process.

Learning Sustainability

Coincidentally I entered into the discussion in separate occasions with others on how to sustain the impact of learning interventions.   Whilst achieving 100% learning transfer all the time is not possible, I think the question is more about ‘How to sustain learning impact to a larger extent?’   Among all the ideas we discussed, it seems to me the ARL (Action Reflection Learning) practice is still the key.   (Yet, it is not without implementation challenges)

I may have written some of the following points before.   Allow me to refresh my thought (to myself) by possibly repeating some.

I think ARL, or the practice of ‘Learning whilst Earning’ is the future.  I once was asked a question ‘What do you think the future of leadership development will be?’   Ideas came to my mind and I said:

“I think we will not have any traditional openly-nominated classroom-based workshop.   We will not have a fixed schedule and thick binders for the learners.   We will not do Just-in-Case learning anymore.   In the future, we will do Just-in-Time learning.   Our facilitators will go into business meetings, perhaps those annual strategy planning meetings. We facilitate their real business discussion.   More than that, we will pause the leaders to reflect on their behaviors in the meetings and if necessary we will introduce some concepts or tools for them to use on spot.”

There are a few reasons why this is probably the future:

Learners’ Commitment – There are lot of problems in the Just-in-Case setting.   I become more and more skeptical of ‘prisoner’ type of learners. They are in the learning event because they are asked to.   Everybody suffers – themselves, the fellow learners and the facilitator.   Time is wasted.   However, if the event is a real business meeting, everyone will be much more engaged.   Things are relevant and real.   And if we can introduce tools and concepts to be immediately used in the on-going situations, learning retention is high by definition.

Sponsors’ Commitment – No matter how well one learns in a workshop, learning retention will drop a great deal if he or she is not supported to apply the learning back in the workplace.   And the line managers are the most important factor determining whether there is enough support.   A typical example – one learn the GROW model to coach.   He applies it back to the workplace but is challenged by his line managers on why he asked so many questions instead of just telling.   And the line managers in fact always just tell.   This will kill his learning on coaching skills right away.

On the other hand, if we install learning in a real business setting, the sponsors are likely involved and in fact become learners as well.

Effectiveness Measurement – Learning professionals have been struggling how to measure effectiveness on leadership development initiative.   There is no perfect solution yet.   However, in the Just-in-Case setting, the intervention effort can possibly result in better business result e.g. cost saving / attrition rate, on top of developing leaders.

Cost Pressure – Given the more and more difficult operating environment, learning resources will likely be cut ……. unless we can prove the effectiveness.   When the next financial crisis comes, it is not unlikely that corporations will further either cut down the stand-alone learning department or outsources majority of the work.   It will however be a different proposition if the so-called learning department can facilitate both earning and learning.   I wrote more about this idea in my previous blog post Forget about ‘Training’

Despite the above, the move from traditional practice to ‘Connecting Earning with Learning’ is still a big paradigm shift for most organizations.    Essentially, it is ‘safe’ to run traditional classes.   And there are often stakeholders with vested interest to the traditional practice.

To me, the key outstanding questions are:

  • How to balance the need for consistency in learning across the organization in adopting Just-in-Time learning approach?
  • Should we adopt a higher balance of conformity for more junior learners i.e. less Just-in-Time?   And if so, how much and where to draw the line?
  • What kinds of quality are needed for the facilitators or Team Coaches to be able to conduct Just-in-Time learning?
  • How to build the initial success in order to influence other stakeholders?

TEDx

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My on-going ‘Swiss adventure’ is a lot about conducting ‘experiments’ for my profession.   The Tavistock experience is definitely an example.   Last week, I just tried out facilitating in a setting completing new to myself – TEDx Lausanne.   After a series of talks, the participants were free to join something called Idea Bubbles – a discussion corner on a specific topic.   Interesting to experience the diverse participant mix and the non-profit nature of the topic.

Tavistock Experience – Learning Design

Further reflection on the Tavistock experience – As said, it is a very uncommon learning experience. To the extreme, for some parts, I could not help comment them as bad learning design.    On the surface of it, there were things looking like ‘shallow debrief’, ‘loose instruction’, etc.    On the other hand, I questioned myself on ‘What am I missing?’.   In sharing these thoughts with others, I was challenged with a question ‘So, what does good learning design mean to you?’

I think this is a good question to ponder on.   Given how unusual the Tavistock experience is, the question can really uncover and challenge my assumption on learning design.    I think there are a few elements which a good learning experience should consist of (not meant to be a prescriptive answer to good learning design).

A good design should create an environment which generates more learning around the topic as agreed with the learners than environments otherwise experienced by the learners.   What such intended environment should look like thus depends on what the topic is.    By environment, it includes the process, facilitators, the physical set up, the material, the learners mix, etc.

In order to achieve the above, a good design should take into account the Adult Learning Principles.   To me, the key ones are WIIFM, variety in learning styles, repetition, a balance of realness and unfamiliarity, learning transfer, effective use of pre and post experience.

In particular, a good design should enhance learning transfer as much as possible so long as it does not crowd out learners’ own responsibility and compromise learning depending on the nature of the intended learning topic.   To be more specific on experiential learning, a good design should provide space for learners to make sense out of the experience individually and collectively with fellow learners.

In that sense, my Tavistock definitely create an unique environment to learn about group relations which the participants would not experience otherwise.  In particular, it is very successful to create the learners’ mix – the size, the willingness to learn and the variety.   Re the Adult Learning Principles, being an open program, the Tavistock conference has limitation on repetition and ‘pre & post’.   I think it did well on variety in learning styles and realness.   Yet, i think there is missed opportunity in WIIFM and learning transfer.

For those who have been to Tavistock experience, what good learning design means to you and what do you think of Tavistock from the learning design perspective?

Tavistock Experience

I attended a Tavistock Group Relations conference last Dec. It is a very unique experience to me.   It is a weird one as well.   There was a lot of ‘stuck-ness’, ambiguity and sometimes emotion in the conference.   It is ‘empty’ (in a neutral sense) where each participant can make different senses out of the experience.  I have been asking myself how I would summarise the conference.    In reflecting with another alumni, here is what comes to my mind:

The conference is about surfacing the assumptions I have on how people interact in group by putting me in groups without specific tasks.

So, what assumptions have been surfaced so far?   For me,

– I assume that groups should have a common purpose.  Otherwise, it is not a group.   I become irritated when people gather despite lack of common purpose or the pursuit to have one.

– I have natural tendency is to be of service to the others (or the common purpose) above.   Even when I consciously tried to suppress it, I fell back into the default role from time to time.

– I assume that ‘there is THE right answer to things’.    This leads to my another strong assumption that ‘I need to pursue to the right answers’      Whilst intellectually I understand that sometimes there is NO right answer, I find myself acting or being on the assumption that there is one.

I have a sense that more ‘learning’ will come after the conference as I contrast this unusual group experience with daily one…

‘If I could choose again, would I go to the conference despite its weirdness?’    Yes, I would.   In relation to my summary statement above, I think the conference gives me very unique opportunity to see myself in group.

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Power of Facilitation

Michael Sandel 2I talked about Professor Michael Sandel before here.  See the post ‘What’s the Right to do?’   I am drawn to his works again recently given what is going on in Hong Kong around the ‘Occupy-Central’ initiative.

Putting the content aside, I am amazed again how his facilitation has helped the debate. As mentioned by him in his interview with BBC, his work is basically to enable public debates though there may not be agreements at the end. I think it makes sense and he has done a great job.

Moreover, he has been enabling debates in different countries like China, Japan, etc. In one of his forum in Japan, the comments from the audience speak for the power of facilitation. See the news report here.

“We tend to shy away from these debates, worried that we might hurt other people’s feelings. But with the help of a good facilitator, Japanese people, too, can have an active discussion.”

And perhaps the biggest attraction of the “Sandel Theater,” as Hayakawa Publishing President Hiroshi Hayakawa called it, was that the professor demonstrated an exceptional ability to put people at ease, treating everyone equally and with respect — as seen in his policy of calling everyone by their first name.

In fact Kan, who said he found Sandel more inspiring than U.S. President Barack Obama, confessed he was “almost in tears” when Sandel called his name. Kimiko Morinaka, 38, a volunteer counselor from Hokkaido, was likewise thrilled.

“When I saw the NHK program, I felt very strongly that I wanted to participate in such an outstanding course,” Morinaka said. “Coming here tonight was my dream come true. I had long dreamed of being asked, ‘What’s your name?’ “

PS See his recent talk on ‘What Money Can’t Buy’.   Amazing examples and arguments!